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Volume 86 Issue 4 (November 1995), Pages 449-559

More than just a game: Research developments and issues in competitive anxiety in sport (pages 449-478)

This paper provides a critical overview of developments and issues in competitive anxiety research. The discussion is divided into sections dealing with general arousal‐based approaches, general anxiety‐based approaches and, finally, multidimensional anxiety‐based approaches. The major emphasis is on multidimensional anxiety‐based approaches, in which a number of factors and issues surrounding the competitive anxiety response are addressed, including: conceptual and measurement developments; antecedents of competitive anxiety; temporal patterning of the response; and frequency of competition‐related cognitive intrusions. Research which has examined the relationship between multidimensional anxiety and performance is considered in detail, including debilitative and facilitative competitive anxiety states and catastrophe models. A control model of debilitative and facilitative competitive anxiety is proposed. Finally, recommendations for future research are suggested.

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