Journal of Organizational Behavior

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Volume 27 Issue 1 (February 2006), Pages 1-109

Collectivism as a moderator of responses to organizational justice: implications for leader‐member exchange and ingratiation (pages 1-17)


Previous research indicates that employee justice perceptions are positively related to leader‐member exchange (LMX). We examined collectivism as a moderator of this relationship. We hypothesized that because maintaining harmonious relationships is important for collectivists, and because protecting their individual identities is not a priority, there is a weaker relationship between interactional and distributive justice perceptions and LMX for individuals high in collectivism. Instead of engaging in behaviors that would lower the quality of their LMX relationships, collectivists are more likely to use soft influence tactics, specifically ingratiation, as a response to perceived unfairness. Thus, we expected a stronger relationship between justice perceptions and ingratiation for those high in collectivism. In a sample of textile‐manufacturing employees in Istanbul, Turkey, we found that interactional justice had a weaker positive relationship with LMX for individuals high in collectivism. In addition, distributive justice had a nonsignificant relationship with LMX for those high in collectivism, whereas there was a positive relationship for those low in collectivism. Finally, for collectivists there was a negative relationship between interactional justice perceptions and frequency of ingratiation, suggesting that collectivists may use more subtle mechanisms when responding to interactional unfairness. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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